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Full text of "The manufacture and properties of iron and steel"

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CHAPTER IV.
STEEL.
A true definition of steel must apply not only to the metals commonly designated by the term, but to all compounds which ever have been, or ever will be, worthy of the name, including the special alloys made by the use of chromium, tungsten, nickel and other elements. Prior to the development of the Bessemer and open-hearth processes there was little room for disagreement as to the dividing line between steel and iron. If it would harden in water, it was steel; if not, it was wrought-ircm By degrees these processes widened their field, and finally began to make a soft metal which possessed many of the characteristics of ordinary wrpught-iron. It then became a matter of great importance to have a proper system of nomenclature, since the filling, of engineering contracts and the interpretation of tariff schedules depended upon the application of the one term or the other to the soft product of the converter and the melting-furnace.
At this juncture an international committee was appointed with a formidable array of well-known names: Holley, Bell, Wedding, Tunner, Akerman, Egleston and Gruner. This committee reported in October, 1876, to the American Institute of Mining Engineers, the following resolution:
(1)   That all malleable compounds of iron with its ordinary ingredients, which are aggregated from pasty masses, or from piles, or from any forms, of iron not in a fluid state, and which will not sensibly harden and temper, and, which generally resemble what is called "wrought-iron," shall be called.-weld iron.
(2)   That such compounds, when they will from any cause harden and temper, and which resemble what is now called "puddled steel," shall be called weld steel.
(3)   That all compounds of iron with its ordinary ingredients which have been cast from a fluid state into malleable masses, and
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